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Inclusive Cambridge: promoting gender equality

 

Q. What is a gender pay gap?

A gender pay gap is the difference between the pay that men and women receive.  It is a measurement of the hourly pay of women in an organisation compared to the hourly pay of men, expressed as a percentage of the hourly pay of men.

Q. What is the difference between gender pay and equal pay?

Gender pay is the difference in pay between all men and women in the organisation.  Equal pay compares the pay men and women receive for performing work of equal value.

Q. What is the University required to report?

In accordance with the Equality Act 2010 (Specific Duties and Public Authorities) Regulations 2017, the University is required to calculate and publish six specific pieces of information each year, using data as at 31st March, which are:

i)             The difference between the mean hourly rate of men and women

ii)            The difference between the median hourly rate of men and women

iii)           The difference between the mean bonus paid to men and women

iv)           The difference between the median bonus paid to men and women

v)            The proportions of men and women who were paid a bonus

vi)           The proportions of men and women in the four quartile pay bands

Q. What is the gender pay gap at the University?

We are required to publish gender pay gap figures for the University of Cambridge Group as a whole, which incorporates three separate entities: the University of Cambridge, Cambridge University Press and the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), a department of the University forming part of Cambridge Assessment.

The 2019 median gender pay gap for the University of Cambridge Group is 11.5%.  This is a 2.2% reduction from the 2018 median of 13.7%.  The 2019 mean gender pay gap for the University Group is 18.4%, which is a 1.3% reduction from the 2018 mean of 19.7%.

In addition to the University of Cambridge Group figures, this year we have published the figures for the three entities, which are as follows:

  Median Mean
The Academic University 13.2% 19.9%
Cambridge University Press 15.9% 20.7%
University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 7.0% 8.6%

 

Q. What is the difference between the mean and median calculations?

The mean is the average value (total of all values divided by the number of values) and the median is the 50th percentile (when all values are lined up in order, it is the middle one).

Q. What is a gender bonus pay gap?

A gender bonus pay gap is the difference between the average bonus pay that men and women receive.  It is a measurement of the difference in bonus pay paid to women over the past year compared to men, expressed as a percentage of bonus pay paid to men.

Q. What are the pay quartiles and what do they tell us?

Pay quartiles are used to demonstrate the gender profile across the University.  All employees included in the reporting are ranked from lowest to highest hourly rates of pay, and then split into four equal groups.  The University's pay quartiles demonstrate that there is a lower proportion of women in the Upper Quartile, and a higher proportion of women in the Lower Quartile.  This vertical segregation, as well as how we are tackling it, is referred to in our Gender Pay Gap report.

Since our first Gender Pay Gap report in 2017, the proportions of women in each quartile have increased, but at a higher rate in the upper quartiles, and continuing this trend will help to close our gender pay gap.  However, higher proportions of women in the lower pay quartiles also contribute to our pay gap, and we acknowledge that more must be done to achieve a gender balance at every level of the University.

Q. What criteria is used for gender pay gap and bonus pay gap calculations?

Under the regulations the gender pay gap is calculated using what is known as ‘ordinary pay’ and covers basic pay, allowances, pay for piecework, pay for leave and shift premium pay. The ‘bonus pay’ gap covers any reward in the form of money, vouchers, securities, securities options or interests in securities and it relates to profit sharing, productivity, performance, incentive or commission.

Q. What is included in bonus pay at the Academic University?

Traditional bonuses are not widely used in the Academic University.  The majority of bonuses included in the gap calculations are based on contribution related payments for professional services staff, where such staff can be awarded one-off payments in recognition of their contribution, either on an individual or team basis.  Other contributors to the bonus gap calculation include Clinical Excellence Awards paid under NHS guidelines, and, in less than 15 cases, payments in certain parts of the University that are commercially focussed or sales driven.

Q. Why do we have a gender pay gap?

The reasons behind the University’s gender pay gap are complex, but we are aware that the gap is rooted in the underrepresentation of women in senior roles, as well as the overrepresentation of women in our lower paid roles (vertical segregation).  Horizontal segregation is also a contributing factor, meaning that there are more men than women in disciplines or roles that are traditionally higher paid.  This is an area we are also focussing our action on.

Q. What is the University doing to close the gender pay gap?

The University has been analysing and publishing gender pay gap information since 2008 through our Equal Pay Reviews, years before the mandatory requirements came into force.  Initiatives already in place have seen improvements in our figures year on year, and you can find our previous Equal Pay Reviews here

Although we are making steady progress in reducing our gender pay gap, we recogise that there is still a long way to go.  Our 2019 Gender Pay Gap report outlines the various initiatives that we, the Academic University, have been working on with the aim of eliminating the gap, including instituional culture and family friendly actions, career progression and pay actions, and recruitment actions.  The report also provides details of the work and progress being made at Cambridge University Press and the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate.

Q. Why is there still a gender pay gap at the University?

At the University, we are committed to tackling the root cause of the gender pay gap, but there is not a quick fix for this.  The initiatives referred to in our 2019 Gender Pay Gap report are focussed on improving our institutional culture and working environment for all our colleagues, and so are long-term solutions; but ultimately ones that will result in positive and sustainable change.

Q. What about the Ethnicity Pay Gap?

This year, we have published the Ethnicity Pay Gap for the Academic University for the first time (the figures for the University Group are not currently available).  The results are positive, and show a 0.0% median pay gap, and a 2.5% mean pay gap in favour of White staff.

In 2016, the University joined the Advanced HE's Race Equality Charter, and successfully applied for the REC Bronze award in November 2019.  The REC addresses the recruitment, representation, progression and retention of minority ethnic staff and students within higher education.  As part of the application for the REC, the University undertook an extensive analysis of data and institutional procedures to identify any racial inequalities.  As a result of this analysis, an institutional three-year action plan to address these inequalities has been developed, and can be found here.  The initiatives detailed in the action plan relate to improving staff balance and representation, career progression, recruitment and culture.  For more information, please visit our Race Equality site.